Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Introduction For many years the United States minority population mostly consisted of African Americans. In 2003, the statistic changed to Hispanics becoming the largest minority population in the United Sates (Parrado Kandel, 2010). With the increase of the Hispanic population, education concerns of this population have started to arise. In some cases, Hispanics are being over referred to special education programs. This phenomenon is linked to the presence of a language barrier as well as other characteristics of the children in this population (Guiberson, 2009). Although the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) specify that language barriers should be ruled out, it seems that this phenomena continues, but could beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A study conducted by Guiberson (2009) has found that the enrollment numbers of Hispanics in special education was disproportionate to the population in the schools themselves. He also finds that these issues is not present in all schools b ut have linked the issues to several criteria some of which are the diversity among students, the size of the school district, and per student spending (Guiberson, 2009). In Guiberson (2009) study he found that 49 percent of the bilingual special education students may not have been learning disabled. The students may have had difficulties that were related to their language and culture and not a learning disability. The Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) of 2004 has several different procedure and document that are to be followed when assessing individuals for a special education program. In Guibersons (2009) research he suggests that some educators may be unprepared to work with diverse student populations. In a 200 participant survey of speech pathologist a study found that a third of the participants did not have sufficient training in multicultural issues (Guiberson, 2009). Studies have shown that students that learn in educational environment that reflect their cultural background tend to achieve more academically, which make multicultural instruction important in school with diverse populations (Ornstein Levine, 2007). GuibersonsShow MoreRelatedEating, And Nutritional Obits847 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Change to Win program entails an intervention framework that aims to change the nutritional habits [list making, shopping, cooking, and eating] of the target population of South Los Angeles / SPA 6, thus decreasing the risk for being overweight and/or becoming obese. 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Washingtons Influence on Historically Black Colleges1908 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWashington, it will also explore the ways in which it diverges from the early Hampton-Tuskegee ideal. According to James D. Anderson in The Education of Blacks in the South, both contemporary observers and later historia ns have portrayed the white south as taking a monolithic view of black education. However, many secondary schools in the south did not emphasize the kind of industrial education advocated by Washington. In the same manner, the historically black college no longer places the emphasis on vocational
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Foalktales Essay A folktale is a general term for any of numerous varieties of traditionalnarrative. The telling of stories appears to be a cultural and universal tradition,common to primitive and complex societies alike. Folktales are demonstrablysimilar from culture to culture, and comparative studies of themes and narrativetechniques have been successful in showing these relationships. Fairy tales areentirely fictional and often begin with such formulas as Once upon a time . Which is not the case in most folktales which useally express something commonto that culture. Folktales are stories that give people a means for sharing theirculture, history and values.Andso was the case in Mother to Son by Langston Hughes. Hughes discussed problems common to people of color from his culture . One of the most powerfultools used by hughes is imagery . Hughes uses strong imagery to get a clearpicture across to the reader. As does he uses Irony and metaphors such assLifefor me aint been no crystal stair Its had tacks in it, And splinters, And boards tornup. HUghes work can be described as a folktale. He writes exactly to fit thedefinition of the word folktale. And the same formula is used my many writersBibliography:
Friday, April 17, 2020
Theory Analysis Dead Poets Society Essay The Marxist theory targets the flaws in capitalism where the bourgeoisie, who are rich owners, are able to control the proletariat (working class). According the Karl Marx, the bourgeoisie can control education, politics, media, etc due to their wealth. Due to the inequality, Karl Marx predicted that the proletariat would start a revolution. Karl Marx believes that capitalism leads to communication where society only cares about impressing others and conspicuous consumption. Karl Marx believes that communism would make the bourgeoisie and the proletariat equal so people wouldnt determine their lives based on their economic circumstance. The Marxist theory proves that In the Dead Poets Society the capitalist system does not work In the school because of Knells Irrational action to commit suicide. If the school had run In a communist approach, Nell could have easily expressed his feelings about acting towards the principle and his father. We will write a custom essay on Theory Analysis Dead Poets Society specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The students and parents took on he role of a proletariat by following the professors orders while the professors and Nils father took on the role of a bourgeoisie. Interpolation had also occurred within the movie because the parents and students were taught to believe from professors that success is only achieved through only studying. As Karl Marx predicted, the students had started a revolution by getting on their desks to rebel against the professor. I enjoyed watching the feminism criticism presentation because the restoration targets that the Dead Poets Society was only revolved around a masculine point of view. I found it interesting because they were able to find that the female characters followed the stereotype of being quiet and always listening to others. As well, I felt that they were accurate that females were viewed as a sexual object because there was a scene with an image of a nude woman. This criticism can be compared to Marxist theory because if everyone lived in a communist approach everyone including females would be able to treated in live equally.
Saturday, March 14, 2020
Tess of the d Urbervilles by Thomas Hardy Tess of the d'UrbervillesSome critics have said that fate conspiresagainst Tess, and that she is not responsiblefor the things which happen to her. Sheherself says, "I am more sinned against than sinning." Do you agree or disagree? Supportyour answer with evidence from the text.As a person who believes that many things are un-avoidable, no matter how careful you are to avoid them, I believe that Tess's life was tragically destroyed by the hand of fate. It is obvious through the words and actions of Tess that she only wanted to have a calm, normal life. However, it seems that she was chosen, for whatever reason, to be on the receiving end of continuous hardships.From the very beginning of the novel, Tess receives "the short end of the stick" in almost every scene. She is one of the girls who doesn't get to dance with the strange young man before he returns to his brothers.Rose,Tess of the d'Urbervilles,Ã£Æ' Ã£Æ' ©,Ã£Æ'â Ã£â ¹ Ã£â ªÃ¯ ¿ ½...Although they exchange looks at each ot her, he runs off into the night without a word spoken between them. This is our first glimpse of Tess, and even before we learn more about her, we know that her family is not well off and that her father seems to be a bit of a drunk. Next, she is, to a degree, railroaded into going to claim kinship to the d'Urbervilles."OeWell, as I killed the horse, mother,' shesaid mournfully, OeI suppose I ought to dosomething. I don't mind going and seeingher, but you must leave it to me aboutasking for help."Tess was very reluctant to go to the d'Urberville house and ask for help, but for some reason, her parents chose her. At the d'Urberville's house, Alec first harasses Tess when they go horseback...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Scholarship - Essay Example But all that changed when I met my present host family for the first time. There was a warm feeling of kindness and understanding from the moment we first met, and somehow they took me in, and treated me like they would treat their very own daughter. There was this instant feeling of connection, and I knew immediately that I was no longer alone. They helped me with English, and encouraged me to talk more and more in the language, urging me not to be shy, insisting that if I did not make mistakes, I would not learn. Slowly, all the chatter around me began to make sense, and it was a relief to be able to greet the people around me in a a language they understood. The family also encouraged me to take part in their life, and to understand the frank, welcoming American culture. In the course of my stay with them, I have been able to visit various American cities like Boston, New York, Kansas City, San Francisco and Los Angeles in their company. I have seen America like it actually is, and not as I saw it earlier on television, and my respect for this country has grown.
Monday, February 10, 2020
Lab Report Example In the course of the experiment, the presence of a peptide bond through the application of the method would result to a copper (ii) ion forming violet color in an alkaline solution. The Biuret test in this experiment is used in the determination of the concentration since peptide bonds occur with the same frequency in each amino acid in the peptide. This is possible in this experiment since the absorption at 550 nm is directly proportional to the protein concentration in accordance to Beer-Lambert law, thus enabling the experiment to determine the level of protein concentration in a solution (Janairo et al. 2011). Folin protein assay is a biochemical assay for determination of the total level of protein in a solution. In this experiment, the concentration of protein is manifested in the color change in the sample solution in proportion to the concentration of protein. The method is based on the reaction of Cu+ produced by the oxidation of the peptide bonds (Lowry et al. 1951). For the biuret protein assay, when 3mg protein is used in the experiment, the average absorbance in 550nm is 0.690. For 2.5 mg, the average absorbance is 0,440nm, for 2mg protein, the average absorbance is 0.588nm. When 1.5 mg protein is used, the average absorbance is 0.564 nm, 1mg result to average absorbance of 0.540nm while 0.5ng solution results to an average absorbance of 0.224nm. In tube X the average absorbance is 0.454nm while tube Y which contains approximately half of the volume of X results to an average absorption of 0.232nm. From the experiment, it is evident that the amount of absorption is directly proportionate to the amount of protein concentration in a solution at a standard absorption level of 550nm absorbance. Thus, the biuret protein assay test is a concrete test that can be used in the determination of the peptide bonds and the amount of proteins in a solution (Lipscomb et al. 2006). For
Thursday, January 30, 2020
African American Immigration Essay There has always been a lot of discussion about the perception of African Americans in the media and how it affects their self-identity. It is easy to find examples of bias in portraying African Americans in the media. So what exactly is it that the media does to bring out these stereotypes, biases, and images that tend to stick with a lot of African Americans? The goal of this paper is to explore the different perceptions African Americans have gone through, how it has given them a sense of double consciousness on life, where the media image of African Americans that has stuck with them for so long can, and will go from here. According to the United States Census Bureau (2001), 12. 3% of all people reporting as one race reported they were Ã¢â¬Å"Black or African AmericanÃ¢â¬ . This ethnic identity is now the second biggest minority group in the United States. It also refers to a group of people that has been in the United States for as long as it has existed. However, through the persecution of slavery, the austerity of segregation, and the continuing underlying prejudice, African Americans are still searching for their true identity. Just as children that were adopted tend to long for a true identity most of their lives, so are the circumstances of the African American. Stolen from their homeland and forced into slavery in a new country, African Americans were basically victims of identity theft. Although a lot of progress has been made in the way of an American identity for African Americans, a true identity has not yet been found. According to W. E. B DuBois (1903) Ã¢â¬Å"The history of the American Negro is the history of this strifeÃ¢â¬âthis longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer selfÃ¢â¬ (p.68). Many African Americans feel the same as W. E. B. Du Bois when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"After the Egyptian and Indian, the Greek and Roman, the Teuton and Mongolian, the Negro is a sort of seventh son, born with a veil, and gifted with second-sight in this American world Ã¢â¬â a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world. Ã¢â¬ He also states, Ã¢â¬Å"One ever feels his twoness Ã¢â¬â an American, a Negro, two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled arrives; two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder. Ã¢â¬ A quick look at American history makes it easy to understand where this split identity stems from because Du Bois claims that African Americans were always forced to see things through Ã¢â¬Å"whiteÃ¢â¬ eyes only and not have a vision of their own. In an effort to rephrase Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ comment above, the terminology of Ã¢â¬Å"twonessÃ¢â¬ is really him trying to define double consciousness as a few different things: 1 the power that white stereotypes have on African AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and also having that internal conflict between labeling themselves as African and American simultaneously. 2 it is a sense of awareness of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self along with the awareness of how others may perceive one. This in turn leads to conforming based on level of power, which is basically what occurred. PBSÃ¢â¬â¢ African American World Timeline (2004) says that there is a large history of not granting African Americans an identity. Before 1787, of course, African Americans were slaves and only thought of as property. In 1787 the U. S. Constitution was approved. It allowed for the continuation of the slave trade for another 20 years and claimed that a slave counted as three-fifths of a man for representation by the government. In 1865 some progress was gained when the Thirteenth Amendment was passed, outlawing slavery and creating a FreedmenÃ¢â¬â¢s Bureau to help out former slaves. Also in 1865 Union General, William Sherman issued a field order setting up 40-acre plots of land in Georgia, South Carolina, and Florida for African Americans to settle. But, in 1866, some all-white legislatures in the former Confederate states passed what were known as, Ã¢â¬Å"Black CodesÃ¢â¬ harshly cutting the freedom of African Americans and practically re-enslaving them. Since that time there has been some progression and also some difficulty for African Americans. Based on the history of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ treatment of African Americans, it is easy to understand how they could struggle for their true identity. James Jones (1991) might say it best when he states, Ã¢â¬Å"Black personality is in part an adaptation to the political contours of racism. The conflict between the freedoms and rights of United States citizens is connected to the denial of freedom and rights that is the history of the African American presence in this country. If we view personality as the resultant of coping pattern and socialization directives, then black personality is, in part, the cumulative representation of the effects of racism over four centuries. It reflects over time, the effects of the form and structure racism takes, and comes to signal the nature of race relations at any point in time (p. 305). Ã¢â¬ This would lead to accepting of the fact that African Americans do, of course, have an identity, but a lot of the time it is dependent on the identity of White race at that time. Alain Locke (1925) explains the upward moving and upbeat side of African American identity: Ã¢â¬Å"In the last decade something beyond the watch and guard of statistics has happened in the life of the American Negro and the three norms who have traditionally presided over the Negro problem have a changeling in their laps. The Sociologist, The Philanthropist, the Race-leader are not unaware of the New Negro but they are at a loss to account for him. He simply cannot be swathed in their formulae. For the younger generation is vibrant with a new psychology; the new spirit is awake in the masses, and under the very eyes of the professional observers is transforming what has been a perennial problem into the progressive phases of contemporary Negro life. Could such a metamorphosis have taken place as suddenly as it has appeared to? The answer is no, not because the New Negro is not here, but because the Old Negro had long become more of a myth than a man. The Old Negro, we must remember, was a creature of moral debate and historical controversy. His has been a stock figure perpetuated as a historical fiction partly in innocent sentimentalism, partly in deliberate reactions. The Negro himself has contributed his share to this through a sort of protective social mimicry forced upon him by the adverse circumstances of dependence. So for generations in the mind of America, the Negro has been more of a formula than a human being a something to be argued about, condemned or defended, to be kept down, or in his place, or helped up, to be worried with or worried over, harassed or patronized, a social bogey or a social burden. The thinking Negro even has been induced to share this same general attitude, to focus his attention on controversial issues, to see himself, in the distorted perspective of a social problem. His shadow, so to speak, has been more real to him than his personality. Through having had to appeal from the unjust stereotypes of his oppressors and Traducers to those of his liberators, friends and benefactors he has subscribed to the traditional positions from which his case has been viewed. Little true social or self-understanding has or could come from such a situationÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬ ¦Until recently, lacking self-understanding, we have been almost as much of a problem to ourselves as we still are to others. But the decade that found us with a problem has left us with only a task. The multitude perhaps feels as yet only a strange relief and a new vague urge, but the thinking few know that in the reaction the vital inner grip of prejudice has been broken. It does not follow that if the Negro were better known he would be better liked or better treated. But mutual understanding is basic for any subsequent cooperation and adjustment. The effort toward this will at least have the effect of remedying in large part what has been the most unsatisfactory feature of our present stage of race relationships in America, namely the fact that the more intelligent and representative elements of the two race groups have at so many points got quite out of vital touch with one another (p. 631). Ã¢â¬ Even in the premier times of African American identity there were still questions to be answered. Now those questions lead to progressive thinking like LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s, Ã¢â¬Å"middle of the roadÃ¢â¬ thinking and Ã¢â¬Å"extremistÃ¢â¬ thinking. An example of the term Ã¢â¬Å"middle-of-the-roadÃ¢â¬ thinking can be seen in a post by Malcolm Frierson (2004) to a discussion board using the topic of what label to give African Americans. He says: Ã¢â¬Å"It is the right of the individual to be self-defining. Black is a color, not a term for a race of people in this millennium. The word was made beautiful and strong in the 60s and beyond for obvious reasons. That effort was admirable and effective, but now fairly done. It is time to move forward. Ã¢â¬ The term African American linguistically puts the race on more comfortable ground. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem right or fair to look at four men and call one Italian, one Native American, one Chinese, and the other black. Ã¢â¬Å"WhitesÃ¢â¬ dont seem to have this concern obviously because they sit at the top of this name issue. The whole system was constructed to glorify the Ã¢â¬Å"whitesÃ¢â¬ (the imperialists) and belittle the Ã¢â¬Å"blacks (the subjects). Ã¢â¬ Also, many whites and blacks together, beg for an end to this issue because they claim, were all Americans. But if we are actually honest with each other, nobody while in contemporary American society, when asked for their race or ethnicity, will never be able to simply label them self as simply Ã¢â¬Å"American. Ã¢â¬ There will always have to be a distinguishing label put upon everyone. Why is it that blacks have to go through this labeling issue more than any other American subgroup? Asian Americans, Italian Americans, and Filipino Americans often become Asians, Italians, and simply Filipino without ridicule or persecution (Asians further become Chinese, Japanese, Taiwanese, and others). A possible answer to this would be that we all identify with our most dominant ancestral line or native country Ã¢â¬â German, Spanish, Portuguese, Jamaican, what have you. It should come before the understood American part. But again, we should respect an individuals rights to be self-defining. One black problem could be that a lot of people really havent been to Africa and are in a sense kind of ashamed about or tend to disregard that fact possibly feeling a sense of ignorance in that area. The term African should be proudly used along with the term American just as other foreign groups use their places of origin along with their American status. Unfortunately this viewpoint is just a common middle-ground between the two poles. The other pole is a belief best supported by the All African PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Revolutionary Party. They say, Ã¢â¬Å"African People born and living in over 113 countries around the world are [one group of] people, with one identity, one history, one culture, one nation and one destiny. We have one common enemy. We suffer from disunity, disorganization and ideological confusion. And we have only one scientific and correct solution, Pan-Africanism: the total liberation and unification of Africa under scientific socialism. They feel that African people that have been born or are living outside of Africa are intentionally kept from the knowledge of Africa and her achievements through European capitalism. They also feel that people inside of Africa are tricked into living in separate countries because of the Ã¢â¬Å"divide and ruleÃ¢â¬ tactic used by Europeans which basically means it forces large concentrations of power (people) into smaller units of power to constrain them from gaining more power as the larger unit. It is this pole that receives the most voice in the media and also probably this pole which leads to the bias media outlets against African Americans. Perhaps the earliest example of media bias against African Americans, whether intentional or not, came from 19th Century naturalists that divided mankind into Caucasians, Mongolians, Malayans, Ethiopians and (native) American races. The Caucasians were defined as wise, the Mongolians crafty, and the Ethiopians/negro unintelligent. This bias is blunt and disrespectful, but possibly not hateful in intent back in the day. Today our media comes from less than ten gigantic media conglomerates in the United States. Salim Muwakkil (1999) mentions that, Ã¢â¬Å"Virtually all of our information, our cultural narratives, and our global images derive from institutions whose major goal is to pay handsome dividends to stockholders (p. 2). Ã¢â¬ Which in other words the media doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t really care what they say even if it sounds hateful. If it sells and gets publicity, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a hit. He also points out that black-owned media operations are becoming increasingly rare as much larger corporations continue to buy out more places and more property. MuwakkilÃ¢â¬â¢s fear is that the mainstream will continue to alter the image of African Americans without challenge to the point that their Ã¢â¬Å"anti-blackÃ¢â¬ tendencies will be encouraged and sustained. Muwakkil makes a very strong point when he states the Kerner CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s findings: Ã¢â¬Å"The Kerner Commission (formally known as the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders), which was charged with finding the reasons for the long-hot-summer rebellions, had concluded that the United States was headed dangerously toward Ã¢â¬Ëtwo societies, one black, and one white, separate and unequal. Ã¢â¬â¢ It blamed the urban unrest on persistent racial discrimination and a historical legacy of disadvantage, but it also singled out the nations news media for censure. The media treated African Americans as invisible, the commission concluded, and failed to communicate to white audiences a feeling for the difficulties and frustrations of being a Negro in the United States (p. 1). Ã¢â¬ In the book, The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America, Robert Entman and Andrew Rojecki (2000) point out some surprising statistics from studies done on American television. While Black actors are now more frequently appearing in films, its a debatable question as to how well theyre being represented. In the top movies of 1996 representation of African American Females and Caucasian females was drastically different where statistics from differences in using profanity, to physical violence were very often a difference of 70% or more between the 2 races with African Americans being in the higher percentage of the two for those certain areas. Television ads now show, hidden patterns of differentiation and distance pertaining to African Americans. Not surprisingly, for instance, Blacks do not touch Whites in the majority of television ads, but as opposed to Whites, they rarely even touch each other, expressing a slight message assuming that Black skin would be taboo. A ranking of racial preference is implanted within the casting of commercials. Network news also tends to place a Ã¢â¬Å"ghettoÃ¢â¬ label or more urban image on African Americans. Increasingly, African Americans appear mostly in crime, sports and entertainment stories. Rarely are Blacks shown making an important contribution to the serious business of the nation. The exception of blacks rarely being shown in a positive fashion contributing to the nation would be President Obama, which will hopefully turn the stage for this image stereotype. Unfortunately however, that negative image is not the only blunt indication of a media stereotype. It is noticed by a lot of different people that African American athletes tend to receive a bad representation by the media, pointing out that when they get into any level of trouble, it is reported significantly more and also perceived in a much different way than when White athletes behave in the same manner or worse. It also is sometimes apparent that sportscasters tend to point out solely the athletic abilities of African American athletes in contrast to their tendency to point out the intelligence and savvy of White athletes. It is a known stereotype for quarterbacks on football teams for example, people perceive this position to demand a much more mental capacity and take a much more conscious effort as opposed to other positions on the team. Therefore the stereotype has often been viewed as teams primarily consisting of white quarterbacks. This tends to lead people to believe that black athletes achieve greatness by some coincidence or by simply their natural physical makeup instead of just assuming they are talented and hard working. There are several more examples of media bias against African Americans and there are far too many to speak on individually. Ultimately the point that is trying to be made is that there is a high level of publicity and strong case for media bias against African Americans. Any actor or famous person for that matter will almost always tell you that no publicity means bad publicity. It is logical then, to see the media (whether its biased or not) as a great tool for providing a voice to the African American community. It is also logical to say that a more biased media representation gives African Americans more publicity as Americans simply love bad press because Ã¢â¬Å"dirtÃ¢â¬ on other people sells, and the media has never cared about ones feelings if it means for them to make money. Ultimately, where I see this issue going from here has everything to do with President Obama. With the world-wide publicity he received for his changing of history for our country, I really feel this will open up many doors into the media for African Americans to have their voice, and create and defend a sense of identity that is much more positive than any other that has been labeled upon them. Obama is the best thing that has happened to African American media and just them as humans because he is what America needs to not only fix the economic and other issues in this country but most importantly bring the people of different colors together even closer than ever before to becoming one country where everyone is separate in color, but equal in representation and voice. Works Cited Du Bois, W. E. B. The Souls of Black Folk. Chicago: A. C. McClurg Co. ; [Cambridge]:University Press John Wilson and Son, Cambridge, U. S. A. , 1903; Bartleby. com,1999. P. 68. Entman, R. M. and Andrew R.. (2000). The Black Image in the White Mind: Media andRace in America. University of Chicago Press. Frierson, M. (2004) Black, black, or African American? Feedback Poynter OnlineRetrieved May 10, 2009 from http://www. poynter. org/article_feedback/article_feedback_list. asp? id=51320 Fudjud, D. (2003) Black, black, or African American? Feedback Poynter OnlineRetrieved May 11, 2009 fromhttp://www. poynter. org/article_feedback/article_feedback_list. asp? id=51320 Jones, J. (1991). The Politics of Personality: Being Black in America. In ReginaldJones (ed. ) Black Psychology 3rd Edition, 305-318. Locke, A. (1925) Enter the New Negro. A hypermedia edition of the March 1925 SurveyGraphic Harlem Number Retrieved May 12, 2009 fromhttp://etext. lib. virginia. edu/harlem/LocEnteF. html Muwakkil, S. (1999). Corporate Media, Alternative Press, and African Americans Media Alliance, Retrieved May 11, 2009 fromhttp://mediaalliance2. live. radicaldesigns. org/article. php? id=535 PBS. (2002) African American World Timeline. Retrieved May 11, 2009 fromhttp://www. pbs. org/wnet/aaworld/timeline/early_01. html U. S. Census Bureau (2001) Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin. Census 2000Website Retrieved May 11, 2009 from http://factfinder. census. gov/servlet/ThematicMapFramesetServlet? _bm=y-geo_id=01000US-tm_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_M00628-ds_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_-_MapEvent=displayBy-_dBy=040. Woods, K. M. (1995) An Essay on a Wickedly Powerful Word Poynter Online RetrievedMay 11, 2009 from http://www. poynter. org/content/content_view. asp? id=5603.